Muslims Were Banned From the Americas as Early as the 16th Century
Video     Photos     Pakistan     World     Islam     Health     Crime     Islamic News     Business     Society     India     Travel     Middle East     Sport     sci/tech      Contact      RSS
Search

How a beggar reached to a Iran bound flight?

Who rigs polls in Pakistan and how?

Malala's unseen controversial pictures at Oxford University

Guns on Pakistan shoulder: The Price of Mullah Fazullah's death

Hodeidah and the Saudi Coalition’s Deliberate Starvation of Yemen

The Destabilizing and Reckless Mohammed bin Salman

England post new ODI record of highest total 481-6

Hand in the hand of snake: Pak-Saudi ties moving from personal to strategic domain

Transgenders school in Faisalabad provides free education, technical training

Yemeni forces kill 123, capture 160 Saudi-led coalition mercenaries

Pakistanis among thousands killed in Saudi-imposed war on Yemen

Who has a better chance in polls?

Saudi World Cup team´s plane suffers mystery engine fire

Nadra's data breach: A well conceived plan for Pre-poll rigging

No end of honor killing : Another Teen girl shot dead for ‘honour’

Iran president rules out military approach to Yemen crisis

A surprise visit: Netanyahu meets Jordan's King Abdullah II

UK PM, Bin Salman Discuss Confronting Iran

Punjab CM Askari takes notice, demands report on bus hostess murder case

ECP should cancel registration of Rah-i-Haq Party – by Aamir Hussaini

UN Rejects Plan for Immediate Ceasefire in Yemen Port

31 killed in Nigeria suicide blasts

Reham claims PTI scared of her book's contents

Kabul library bus drives Afghan children to read

World Cup 2018: Mexico upset defending champs Germany 1-0

Has PTI closed her doors for Ch.Nisar Ali Khan?

Are Iran and Israel heading toward open warfare?

India should seriously consider 'limited war' with Pakistan: BJP leader

The end of Fazlullah

Did someone attempt to poison Kusloom Nawaz?

Messi misses penalty as Iceland hold out for draw

At least 26 dead in Afghanistan suicide attack during Eid ceasefire

Mullah Fazlullah: Ruthless TTP chief who green-lighted 2014 Peshawar carnage

Ronaldo hat-trick earns Portugal draw with Spain in thriller

Pakistan celebrates Eid with religious zeal and fervour

“Saudi Arabia must not purchase Russian S-400”; Washington threatens its ally with sanctions

State terrorism: India'Rising Kashmir editor-in-chief Shujaat Bukhari gunned down

Dynasties, old and new: How Imran Khan disappointed his workers?

UN on Kashmir: Would mere statement enough to stop Genocide of Kashmiris?

Shellshocked Spain face Portugal in early World Cup treat

Battling depression in educational institutes

Saudi-led warships doomed to destruction: Yemen’s Navy

Kulsoom Nawaz in Critical condition after Cardiac arrest: Maryam asks for prayers

Soccer diplomacy: Is Putin looking for a thaw between Iran and Saudi Arabia?

US drone strike reportedly kills senior TTP chief Mullah Fazlullah in Afghanistan

Fortifying speculations of death: Saudi crown prince absent from King Salman meeting with 24 princes

MWM Chief hosts Iftar party in honour of ambassadors of Muslim countries

UN agency hopes to win reprieve for Afghan refugees

'Man buries deceased father in brand-new BMW in Nigeria'

Eid-ul-Fitar likely on Saturday in Pakistan

Musharraf barred from contesting election

A book against Imran Khan: Is it a last weapon against PTI chief?

NA-247: A dictator, a mayor, an activist – who deserves Karachi’s hot seat?

Five Pakistani students graduate from South Asian University in New Delhi

Yemeni troops repel Saudi attack on Hudaydah port

Saudi Arabia ruined Morocco's World Cup bid, Moroccans say

Pakistan team seals series against Scottish kids

Complicity in War Crimes: UK Facilitating Suspicious Arms Flow to Saudi Arabia

Trump: Our rocket strike against Syria last year was a warning to China!

Did Nawaz deliberately asked Khawaja Haris to quit?

The withdrawal of UN and Red Cross forces from Hodiedah port in Yemen

Can election commission stop JuD offshoots to contest elections?

A Test of nerves for Afghanistan in debut against India

COMSATS Rector’s Research Paper Found Plagiarized Yet Again

Why Shouldn't Shiite leaders be a part of MMA?

Afghanistan peace: US gun on Pakistan shoulder

Trump, Kim end summit, but was the deal clearly worded?

Pakistan thrashes Scotland in first T20

The spy pigeons: Is India making it a laughing stock?

Azerbaijan envoy praises Pakistan Armys role for regional peace

Iran, China use their currencies for joint trade exchange

Will Pakistan's daughter Khadija Siddiqi ever find justice

What is up the sleeve of military establishment? – by Peja Mistry

A PTI candidate who defeated Nawaz on PPP ticket

Imran Khan: From political pariah to a potential PM

Can Scotland topple the No.1 T20 team?

Tit for Tat: Can PTI use Ch. Nisar against Nawaz in response to Reham Khan's book?

PIEAS Tops Pakistani Universities in QS Rankings 2019

India’s Nayara Energy to cut Iran oil imports

No lesson from Iran: Finally the North Korea lost to US

Ridiculous allegation: Netanyahu claimed to help the lack of water in Iran

On June 6, 1963, at least 116 Shia Muslims were massacred

Would Ch.Nisar dent PML-N as independent candidate?

SC suspends tax deductions on prepaid cellphone top-up cards

Gwadar-Chabahar connectivity to deepen economic ties

Mammoth Challenge: Can Pakistan avoid its name from FATF?

Why Khawaja Haris refused to defend Nawaz Sharif?

Cat is out of the bag: How PTM fooled people to gain political mileage?

Fox News calls Donald Trump a ‘dictator’

Qatar on Saudi war threat: World not living in law of the jungle era

Closure of mosques in Austria may lead to ‘war between cross & crescent’ – Erdogan

AL QUDS DAY 2018: THOUSANDS RALLY THROUGH LONDON IN SUPPORT OF PALESTINE + PHOTOS

Israel agents trained India commandos leading Sikh temple raid

‘UAE buying Jerusalem properties on behalf of Israel’

No party ticket: Would PML-N abandon Ch.Nisar?

A road to defeat: Did Imran Khan commit a historic blunder?

Nawaz behind bars: PML-N in further disarray

Has Jahangir Tareen parted ways with Imran Khan?

‘UN deal with Myanmar could return Rohingya Muslims to killing fields’

‘US used 9/11 attacks to target Muslims’

2017-02-08 23:24:13

Muslims Were Banned From the Americas as Early as the 16th Century

061912-national-this-day-black-history-slaverySHAFAQNA – Long before today’s anxiety about terror attacks, Spain and England feared that enslaved Africans would be more susceptible to revolt if they were Muslim

On Christmas Day, 1522, 20 enslaved Muslim Africans used machetes to attack their Christian masters on the island of Hispaniola, then governed by the son of Christopher Columbus. The assailants, condemned to the grinding toil of a Caribbean sugar plantation, killed several Spanish and freed a dozen enslaved Native Americans in what was the first recorded slave revolt in the New World.

 The uprising was quickly suppressed, but it prompted the newly crowned Charles V of Spain to exclude from the Americas “slaves suspected of Islamic leanings.” He blamed the revolt on their radical ideology rather than the harsh realities of living a life of slavery.

By the time of the Hispaniola revolt, Spanish authorities had already forbidden travel by any infidel, whether Muslim, Jewish, or Protestant, to its New World colonies, which at the time included the land that is now the United States. They subjected any potential emigrant with a suspicious background to intense vetting. A person had to prove not just that they were Christian, but that there was no Muslim or Jewish blood among their ancestors. Exceptions were granted solely by the king. Catholic Europe was locked in a fierce struggle with the Ottoman Empire, and Muslims were uniformly labeled as possible security risks. After the uprising, the ban applied even to those enslaved in the New World, writes historian Sylviane Diouf in a study of the African diaspora.

“The decree had little effect,” adds historian Toby Green in Inquisition: The Reign of Fear. Bribes and forged papers could get Jews to the New World with its greater opportunities. Slave traders largely ignored the order because West Africa Muslims often were more literate and skilled in trades, and therefore more valuable, than their non-Muslim counterparts. Ottoman and North Africans captives from the Mediterranean region, usually called Turks and Moors, respectively, were needed to row Caribbean galleys or perform menial duties for their Spanish overlords in towns and on plantations.

In the strategic port of Cartagena, in what is now Colombia, an estimated half of the city’s slave population were transported there illegally and many were Muslim. In 1586, the English privateer Sir Francis Drake besieged and captured the town, instructing his men to treat Frenchmen, Turks, and black Africans with respect. A Spanish source tells us “especially Moors deserted to the Englishman, as did the blacks of the city.” Presumably they were promised their freedom, although Drake was a notorious slave trader. A Spanish prisoner later related that 300 Indians—mostly women—as well as 200 Africans, Turks, and Moors who were servants or slaves boarded the English fleet.

En route to the English colony on Roanoke Island, Drake and his fleet raided the small Spanish settlement of St. Augustine, on Florida’s Atlantic Coast, and stripped it of its doors, locks and other valuable hardware. With the pirated slaves and stolen goods aboard, Drake intended to bolster Roanoke, situated on the Outer Banks of North Carolina and the first English effort at settling the New World. “All the Negroes, male and female, the enemy had with him, and certain other equipment which had taken…were to be left at the fort and settlement which they say exists on the coast,” a Spanish report states.

Drake sought to help his friend, Sir Walter Raleigh, who had settled Roanoke the year prior with more than 100 men and the goal of establishing a base for privateering and extracting the wealth that made Spain the richest and most powerful nation on Earth. Among them was a German metallurgist named Joachim Gans, the first Jewish-born person known to have set foot on American soil. Jews were forbidden to live or even visit England then—the ban lasted from 1290 to 1657—but Raleigh needed scientific expertise that could not be found among the Englishmen of his day. He won for Gans today’s equivalent of an H-1B visa so that the accomplished scientist could travel to Roanoke and report on any valuable metals found there. Gans built a workshop there and conducted extensive experiments.

Shortly after Drake’s fleet arrived off the Carolina coast, a fierce hurricane pummeled the island and scattered the ships. The English colonists abruptly chose to abandon their battered fort and return home with the fleet. Had the weather been more fortunate, the fragile settlement on Roanoke might have emerged as a remarkably mixed community of Christian, Jewish and Muslim Europeans and Africans, as well as Indians from both South and North America. The Drake fleet returned safely to England, and Elizabeth I returned 100 Ottoman slaves to Istanbul in a bid to win favor with the anti-Spanish sultan.

The fate of the Moors, Africans and the Indians, however, remains an enduring mystery. There is no record of them reaching England. “Drake thought he was going to find a flourishing colony on Roanoke, so he brought a labor supply,” says New York University historian Karen Kupperman. She and other historians believe that many of the men and women captured in Cartagena were put ashore after the storm.

Drake was always eager to make a profit from human or material cargo, and not inclined to liberate a valuable commodity, but there was little market in England for enslaved persons. To make room for the Roanoke colonists, he may well have dumped the remaining men and women on the Carolina coast and sailed away. Some of the refugees may have drowned in the hurricane.

Less than a year later, a second wave of English settlers sailed to Roanoke—the famous Lost Colonists–but they made no mention of meeting hundreds of refugees. The Cartagena captives might have scattered among the local Native American population to avoid detection by the slave raiders who prowled the North American coast in the 16th century. The new colonists were themselves abandoned in the New World and never heard from again—including Virginia Dare, the first English child born in America.

The Jamestown settlement that followed adopted a policy similar to that of the Spanish with regards to Muslims. Christian baptism was a requirement for entering the country, even for enslaved Africans, who first arrived in Virginia in 1619. In 1682, the Virginia colony went a step further, ordering that all “Negroes, Moors, mulattoes or Indians who and whose parentage and native countries are not Christian” automatically be deemed slaves.

Of course, suppressing “Islamic leanings” did little to halt slave insurrections in either Spanish or British America. Escaped slaves in Panama in the 16th century founded their own communities and fought a long guerilla war against Spain. The Haitian slave revolt at the turn of the 19th century was instigated by and for Christianized Africans, although whites depicted those seeking their freedom as irreligious savages. Nat Turner’s rebellion in Virginia in 1831 stemmed in part from his visions of Christ granting him authority to battle evil.

The real threat to peace and security, of course, was the system of slavery itself and a Christianity that countenanced it. The problem wasn’t the faith of the immigrants, but the injustice that they encountered on their arrival in a new land.

Categories:   Other News ،
Tags:   Muslims Were Banned ،
From other agencies (RSS Reader)

Dynastic Politics

- Samaa.tv

Election Videos

- Samaa.tv

Election Videos

- Samaa.tv

Election Videos

- Samaa.tv

Turkey marks World Refugee Day

- worldbulletin.net

Today in History June 20

- worldbulletin.net